From the Richmond Daily Dispatch:
Inaugural address of Gov. Jackson, of Missouri.
St. Louis,Jan. 4–Governor Jackson’s inaugural address was almost exclusively devoted to the discussion of Federal relations.–He says the destiny of the slaveholding States are identical, and Missouri would best consult her own interests and the interests of the whole country by a timely declaration of her determination to stand by her sister slaveholding States, in whose wrongs she participates and with whose institutions her people sympathize.
Missouri will remain in the Union so long as there is a hope of maintaining the guarantees of the Constitution; but it the Northern States are determined to put the slaveholding States on the footing of inequality, by preventing the entrance of slaves into the Territories; admitting no more slave States; or persisting in nullifying or perverting the Constitution in reference to slave property, then they themselves practically abandon the Union, and cannot expect the South to submit to such a Government.
He opposes coercion, and says the project of maintaining the Government by force may lead to a consolidated despotism, but never to Union. Our Government is based upon justice, equality — and the first drop of blood shed in a war of aggression upon Sovereign States will result in the overthrow of the entire Federal system. He says he has not abandoned all hope of the preservation of the Union, and he believed that, by prudence and well-directed efforts, an adjustment alike honorable to both sections can be effected. He is opposed to Congressional compromises, and says the South can rely only upon constitutional guaranties, and, to effect this end, he advises the calling of a Southern Convention to agree upon such amendments of the Constitution as would secure her just rights, and submit them to the Northern States for their action. He advises the calling of a State Convention to ascertain the will of the people on the subject; and also advises a thorough organization of the State militia to repel invasion and protect property and the lives of citizens. He recommends the legalization of the suspension of specie payments by the banks.
Claiborne Fox Jackson was elected Governor of Missouri as a “popular sovereignty” Democrat. As his inaugural suggested, he was not a strong Unionist. Within three months, he would be forced out of office by the Missouri Constitutional Convention.
Note that Missouri was the only state in which at least one county went for each of the four presidential candidates in 1860. The overall vote totals were 35.5% Douglas (Missouri was the only state he carried), 35.3% Bell, 18.9% Breckinridge, and 10.3 % Lincoln. Three counties went for Lincoln — Gasconade, St. Louis, and St. Louis City — all of them probably due mainly to German immigrants’ votes. It is interesting to compare the county votes with the slave population map:
Here we see that the areas with the largest slave populations were mostly for Bell, as was the case in Mississippi and Alabama*. Large slaveholders were conservative, and supported Bell’s Constitutional Union party. Breckinridge voters in Missouri were concentrated in the Ozarks, among small farmers with few or no slaves; the traditionally populist appeal of the Democratic party probably was responsible for this. As both Bell and Douglas voters tended to oppose secession, and they combined for over 70% of the 1860 vote, it is apparent that the union had considerable support in Missouri, despite the views of its new governor.
*See Barney, The Secessionist Impulse: Alabama and Mississippi in 1860.