Category Archives: American Indians

November 29, 1864: The Sand Creek Massacre

Black Kettle and White Antelope meeting in Colorado. ***************************************** The New York Times published, some eight months after the incident, the report of the House of Representatives on the massacre of approximately one hundred Cheyenne and Arapaho by U.S. Cavalry … Continue reading

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March 28, 1864: The Final Solution to the Indian problem

Gen. Pope, banished to the Northwest to deal with hostile native Americans, pleads forgiveness for his delay in sending requested troops to the Army of the Potomac. He needs them to put down an expected Sioux uprising, and he uses … Continue reading

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February 28, 1864: Dealing with the Indians

Kit Carson ******************************************************* In two items from different sources, both dated Feb 28, 1864, we see the Federal government pursuing some very different policies toward different native American tribes. The Osage, helping the Union in the near west, get ponies. … Continue reading

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December 26, 1862: Mankato Execution

The Dakota uprising of 1862 ended with 38 men hanged simultaneously in Mankato, Minnesota. It was the largest mass execution in American history. The New York Times account below appeared on January 13, 1863. THE INDIAN EXECUTIONS.; An Interesting Account, … Continue reading

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December 25, 1862: “Red Devils” in Minnesota

Arrowmaker, Ojibwa, ca. 1903 It takes a while for news to make it to the East from the Wild West of Minnesota. Here a New York Times report from the frontier tells of Indian “insolence”, particularly from an educated Chippewa … Continue reading

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June 26, 1861: Plans to invade Missouri or Kansas

Benjamin McCulloch The Confederacy encouraged McCulloch to act in Missouri, if necessary via Kansas. With fugitive governor Jackson fleeing toward the southwest corner of Missouri, support from Arkansas was becoming a more urgent necessity if there was to be any … Continue reading

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June 23, 1861: Creek Indians are divided

Benjamin McCulloch General McCulloch was charged with command over the Indian Territory for the Confederacy, and he had to act as a diplomat to a large number of independent nations. Sometimes a single tribe constituted more than one, as this … Continue reading

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June 22, 1861: Chief Ross plays a deep game

John Ross, Chief of the Cherokee John Ross, it appears, was doing a very good job of playing both sides against each other. The Unionists thought he was Union; the Confederate general McCulloch, as evidenced by his dispatch below, was … Continue reading

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June 18, 1861: Indians divide their loyalties

John Ross, Chief of the Cherokee Both sides were trying hard to forge alliances with Indian tribes, who had the potential to provide a lot of troops in the thinly settled west. The Choctaws had early declared for the Confederacy, … Continue reading

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June 2, 1861: Arkansas troops need leadership

Troops were assembling in Arkansas, many with the goal of invading Missouri, but organization was apparently lacking. Many of the American Indian tribes in the area were joining the confederacy, and David Hubbard, the Confederate Commissioner of Indian Affairs, wanted … Continue reading

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